The Alternative Latvian Dictionary

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Colourful extracts from Wiktionary. Slang, vulgarities, profanities, slurs, interjections, colloquialisms and more.

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aplikācija
etymology 1 Probably from aplikt + ācija
noun: {{lv-noun}}
  1. applique work
  2. applique
etymology 2 From English word application
noun: {{lv-noun}}
  1. (slang) application (a computer program)
  2. (slang) app
related terms:
  • lietotne
In 2014 word was recognized as gada nevārds (“not word of year”) in Latvia.
ārprātīgs etymology From ārprāts + īgs (with ārprāts from ārs ‘outside’ + prāts ‘mind’). pronunciation {{rfap}}
adjective: {{lv-adj}}
  1. crazy, mad, insane having serious mental disorders ārprātīgs cilvēksinsane person kļūt ārprātīgam — to become insane viņš kliedz kā ārprātīgs — he screamed like a madman vai būtu tā, ka visi vācieši vēlējuši karu? tad tiešām varētu teikt, ka viņi ir ārprātīgi, tiem visiem jāuzvelkt trako krekls — could it be so that all Germans wanted war? then I could really say that they are insane, that they have to wear a straitjacket
  2. crazy, mad, insane expressing such features ārprātīgi smieklicrazy laughs ārprātīgs skatienscrazy look, stare
  3. (figuratively) crazy, mad, insane unreasonable, not fitting accepted norms ārprātīgs nodomscrazy intention ārprātīgas idejascrazy ideas (figuratively, colloquial) mad, crazy very large, strong; extraordinary ārprātīgas dusmas, bailesmad rage, fear ārprātīgs nogurumscrazy, terrible fatigue Roga ar ārprātīgu lēcienu pieskrēja ratiem un sagrāba pātagu — Roga with a crazy jump ran up to the cart and grabbed the whip
Synonyms: neprātīgs, traks, vājprātīgs
related terms:
  • ārprāts
auto
participle: {{head}}
  1. lv-inflection of autais
  2. lv-inflection of autais
  3. lv-inflection of autais
  4. lv-inflection of autais
  5. lv-inflection of autais
  6. lv-inflection of autais
  7. lv-inflection of autais
  8. lv-inflection of autais
noun: {{head}}
  1. (colloquial) car (automobile, a vehicle steered by a driver)
bāba etymology From Proto-Balto-Slavic *bā́ˀbāˀ{{R:Derksen 2008|32}}. Cognate with Common Slavic *baba and Lithuanian bóba.
noun: {{head}}
  1. (vulgar) woman
baigs etymology From the same stem as baidīt (q.v.), with an extra g (compare Lithuanian baigìnti). Cognates include Lithuanian dialectal baigus.{{R:lv:LEV}} pronunciation
  • {{lv-IPA}}
{{audio}}
adjective: {{lv-adj}}
  1. terrible, dreadful, depressive, grim; that which causes distress, gloomy feeling and fear baigs ugunsgrēksterrible fire baiga tumsaterrible darkness baigs klusumsgrim silence baiga vētraterrible storm baiga kara postažaterrible devastation of war baigs ierocisterrible weapon
  2. feeling, mental state, etc. associate with something depressing, grim, or with fear baigas izjūtasterrible feeling baigas gaidasgrim expectations baigs pārdzīvojumsgrim experience
  3. (colloquial) very intense; very good viņš ir baigais peldētājs — he is a great swimmer baigi foršā ballīte, ko?pretty nifty party, right?
balle
noun: {{lv-noun}}
  1. ball old-fashioned spacious, luxurious dancing party balles tērpsball dress, clothes zaļumu balle — open-air ball, dancing party masku balle — masquerade (lit. mask ball)
  2. (colloquial) a small party, with food and drink vakar pēc sapulces ceplī bijusi īsta balle — yesterday after the meeting in the kiln there was a real ball
bēbis etymology From English baby. Alternative historical forms: bebijs, bēbijs. First attested use – 1911.{{R:alv}} pronunciation
  • ˈbēːbis
noun: {{lv-noun}}
  1. (colloquial) a baby, an infant or a toddler exampleBebijs – bērns, 1-2 gadus vecs Baby – a child, 1 or 2 years old exampleBaby – bēbis, mazs bērns. Baby – an infant, a small child.
  2. (figurative) a childish, immature person
bērns {{slim-wikipedia}} etymology From an earlier *berns, with lengthening ([èɾ] > [æ̀ːɾ]), from Proto-Baltic *bernas, from Proto-Indo-European *bʰer- with an extra -no-s. The meaning evolved from “carry, bear” > “carried thing, burden” > “baby (being carried by pregnant woman)” > “child.” Cognates include Lithuanian bérnas, xsv barnaj (< *bernai), Proto-Germanic *barną (Gothic 𐌱𐌰𐍂𐌽 〈𐌱𐌰𐍂𐌽〉, Swedish barn). In the sense of “burden,” also Proto-Slavic *bermę < *bermen- (Russian dialectal бере́мя 〈berémâ〉), xcl բեռն 〈beṙn〉, Ancient Greek φέρνη 〈phérnē〉; in the sense of “pregnant,” Russian бере́менная 〈berémennaâ〉, Polish brzemienna, from brzemienny; and in the sense of “to be born, birth,” Ancient Greek φέρμα 〈phérma〉, Old English ġeberan, German gebären, English bear, be born.{{R:lv:LEV}} pronunciation
  • {{lv-IPA}}
noun: {{lv-noun}}
  1. child boy or girl up to approximately 14 years of age mazs bērns — small child raudošs bērns — crying, weeping child nerātns bērns — naughty child neiznests bērns — premature (lit. not-fully-carried) child ārlaulības, nelikumīgs bērns — out-of-wedlock, illegitimate child bērna audzināšana — a child's education auklēt bērnu — to baby-sit a child kopt bērnu — to care for a child mācīt bērnu — to teach a child adoptēt bērnu — to adopt a child bērnu ratiņi — strollers (lit. little children's carts) bērnu' autiņi — diapers (lit. children's little cloths) bērnu nams, bērnunams — orphanage (lit. children's house) bērnu dārzs, bērnudārzs — kindergarten (lit. children's garden) bērnu laukums — (children's) playground bērnu literatūrachildren's literature, books bērnu ārsts — pediatrician (lit. children's doctor) bērnu spēlechildren's play (= something very simple and easy) tu runā kā bērns — you talk like a child (= too naively, childishly)
  2. child son or daughter, regardless of age, in relation to their parents; descendants vienu vecāku bērnichildren of the same parents, siblings pieauguši bērnigrownup children viņai ir vienpadsmit bērnu: septiņas meitas un četri dēli — she has eleven children: seven daughters and four sons kad bērni lieli, iet tie paši ar savu galvu un vecāku prātu
  3. (colloquial) animal offspring “vai, māt, Brūnaļai teļinš!” meitene priecīgi sasit rokas... “Brūnaļa mani vairs nepazīst...” “viņai bail, ka tu nedari pāri viņas bērnam“oh, Mum, Brūnaļa (the cow) has a little calf!” the girl happily clapped her hands... “Brūnaļa doesn't know me anymore...” “she is afraid of what you might do to her child
  4. (poetic) person, with respect to land, people, nation, political movement, etc. to which he or she belong}} tu biji krietnais tautas bērns — you were an honest, decent child of the people dziesma, ai dziesmiņa, skani skaļi / visur, kur Latvijas bērniem mājas! — song, oh little song, do sound loud / everywhere where Latvia's children have homes!
braukt etymology From Proto-Indo-European *bʰreuk- (whence also brukt, q.v.), from a stem *bʰer- (whence also berzt, q.v.). The meaning evolution was probably: “to scrub, to grate” > “to rub, to wipe” (a meaning still conserved in the erstwhile iterative form braucīt, and sometimes in braukt itself; see below) > “to drag, to slide” > “to make (a vehicle) slide, run” > “to go, to ride (on a vehicle)” (note that the oldest Baltic vehicles moved by sliding, without wheels). Cognates include Lithuanian bràukti “to stroke, to rub, to pull (leaves, berries etc. stuck in one's hands), to wipe (tears, sweat),” colloquially also “to ride, to race,” Russian dialectal брукать 〈brukatʹ〉 (< Proto-Slavic *brukati) “to throw, to hurl, to kick; to smear.” From a variant stem *bʰreuḱ- 〈*bʰreuḱ-〉 also Proto-Slavic *brusiti (Russian dialectal брусить 〈brusitʹ〉 “to gather leaves for animals (to eat)”, from “to pluck, to pull,” Bulgarian бруся 〈brusâ〉, Czech brousit, Polish brusić).{{R:lv:LEV}} pronunciation
  • {{lv-IPA}}
{{audio}}
verb: {{lv-verb}}
  1. to go, to ride (in a vehicle) braukt automobilī, automašīnā — to go by car braukt pajūgā, kamanās — to go on a cart, on a sleigh braukt ar autobusu, ar vilcienu — to go by bus, by train braukt ar tvaikoni, ar lidmašīnu — to go by steamboat, by plane braukt komandējumā — to go on a business trip, on an expedition braukt uz kuģa, uz kuģiem — to go on a boat (also, to be(come) a sailor)
  2. (with animal names) to go (on a cart, sled, sleigh, etc.) pull by animal braukt ar zirgu — to go on a horse-drawn cart braukt ar vēršiem, ar suņiem, ar briežiem — to go on a cart pulled by oxen, by dogs, by (rein)deer
  3. (transitive) to ride (a horse) tēvs brauc lepnus zirgus — father is riding a proud horse
  4. (in the 3rd person, speaking of vehicles, harnessed animals) to go, to move, to ride, to travel laiva brauc pa ezeru — the boat is traveling on the lake trolejbuss brauc uz depo — the trolleybus is going to the depot pajūgi brauc pa ceļa malu — carts go on the edge of the road zirgs brauc pa ceļu — the (yoked, harnessed) horse rides on the road
  5. (colloquial, of fingers, hands, feet) to run (on a surface) kā asaras slaucīdama, viņa abām plaukstām brauca pār vaigiem — as if wiping tears, she ran both palms (= hands) over (her) cheeks
Synonyms: (of "going," but on foot) iet, (of "riding a horse") jāt
related terms:
  • braucīt
  • braukāt
  • braukšus
buča etymology From Proto-Baltic *bu- (with an extra onomatopoeic č(a), suggesting the sound of kissing), from Proto-Indo-European *bu-. Some researchers suggest borrowing from Germanic; the majority opinion is that this word was not borrowed. Cognates include Lithuanian bùčius, bučinỹs 〈bučinỹs〉, Belarusian буся 〈busâ〉, Bulgarian бузя 〈buzâ〉, Polish buzia, Ukrainian бузя 〈buzâ〉, gml bützen, German bussen (dialectal pussen), Swedish puss, Irish bus, Albanian buzë, Latin bucca.{{R:lv:LEV}} pronunciation
  • {{lv-IPA}}
  • {{audio}}
noun: {{lv-noun}}
  1. (colloquial) kiss a touch with the lips, to express love, friendship, respect, devotion viņš deva tai sirsnīgu buču — he gave her a warmhearted kiss kad meita buču saņēmusi, tad viņa iesaucas: “tu pagāns!” un dara tā, it kā tā lūpas gribētu noslaucīt — when the girl received the kiss, she exclaimed: “you heathen!” and did as if she wanted to wipe her lips clean
Synonyms: skūpsts
related terms:
  • bučot
bučot etymology From the same stem as buča, made into a second-conjugation verb (ending -ot).{{R:lv:LEV|buča}} pronunciation {{audio}}
verb: {{lv-verb}}
  1. (colloquial) to kiss to touch with the lips, in order to show love, friendship, respect, devotion sieva sagrāba viņu un sāka izstieptām lūpām bučot uz vaiga, acīm, deguna — the wife grabbed him and started kissing with stretched lips on his cheeks, eyes, nose šņukstēdama tad māte nokrita pie gultas... bučoja man degošos vaigus un pieri — sobbing, mother fell near the bed... (she) kissed my burning cheeks and forehead
Synonyms: skūpstīt
related terms:
  • buča
būšana etymology From būt + šana. pronunciation
  • {{audio}}
noun: {{lv-noun}}
  1. lv-verbal noun of būt gadsimtu kaimiņu būšanabeing neighbors for centuries īpaša kopā būšana un īpašas atmiņas — a special being together (togetherness) and special memories!
  2. (dated) being (somewhere), presence būšu, būšu; kā tad nu bez būšanas! — I will be, I will be; how could it be without (my) being (= presence, existence)!
  3. (dated) station, situation, condition; also work, business jūs, jaunkungi, neko nesaprotat no laucinieku būšanas — you, young gentlemen, do not understand anything about the condition, the life of rural people Prātnieks ar Oliņu runāja par to pašu mērnieku būšanu — Prātnieks and Oliņa talked about his (land) surveryor business
  4. (colloquial) relation, relationship between people, e.g., when imply advantage, fair or unfair “jau ir...” Sīlis teica, un viņa acīs slapstījās prieks: “bet runāsim mēs vienkārši; kaimiņu būšana!” — “it already is...” Sīlis said, and in his eyes there was hidden pleasure: “but let's talk straight; (it's) being neighbors (= it's how neighbors are)!” nez, kā tas izskatīsies, kad vēlēšanās būs divi kandidāti no vienas ģimenes; ka nesāk domāt: radu būšana — I wonder what it will look like when there are two candidates from the same family in the election; (I hope) they won't start thinking: being relatives (= it's a family deal, it won't be fair) var gadīties, ka kādam mostas aizdomas par draugu būšanu... visi tie cilvēki pārāk dedzīgi viņu aizstāv — it may be that in someone there will be suspicion about friends' being (= some deal between friends)... all those people are too eager to defend him
  5. (colloquial) state, situation, especially undesirable tur pašreiz zivju nav; sasodīta būšana! — there are no fish there now; damn being (= situation)! kas tā par būšanu? kad es beidzot dabūšu traktoru? cik ilgi man tā jādzīvo bez darba? — what being (= bad situation) is this? When will I finally get a tractor? How long do I have to live without work? Dauka sāka dzīt ganos; no rītiem gan agri vajadzēja celties, bet drīz tas bija apradis ar šo būšanu — Dauka began to take (cattle) to pasture; he had to wake up early in the morning, but soon he had gotten used to this being (= situation, state of affairs)
Synonyms: (of "being", "existing") esamība, esība, eksistence, (of "state", "situation", "condition") situācija, stāvoklis, apstāklis
related terms:
  • būt
  • būtība
  • būtisks
  • būtne
celt etymology From Proto-Baltic *kelti, from Proto-Indo-European *kel-. Cognates include Lithuanian kélti, Proto-Slavic *čelo (Russian чело 〈čelo〉), Latin excellō (< *keld-), celsus (< *keld-tos).{{R:lv:LEV}} pronunciation
  • {{lv-IPA}}
{{audio}}
verb: {{lv-verb}}
  1. to lift, to raise to move something upward celt krēsli, akmeni — to lift a chair, a stone celt saiņus — to lift bundles celt glāzi pie lūpām — to lift a glass to (one's) lips celt plecos nastu — to lift a burden on (one's) shoulders celt maisus ārā no ratiem — to lift (= take) bags out of the cart ko nevar celt, to nevar nest — what you can't lift, you can't carry celt roku — to raise (one's) hand celt kāju pāri slieksnim — to raise (one's) foot above the threshold celt galvu (augstāk) — to raise (one's) head (higher) (= be confident) celt degunu par augstu — to raise (one's) nose high (= be conceited) necelt (ne savu) kāju — to not lift one foot (= to not go)
  2. (with galdā “at the table” or priekšā “ahead, at the front”) to offer, to serve (food, drink) lit. to lift to the table, to lift forward tajā vakarā Anna līdz pat tumsai nebija skaidrībā, ko lai ceļ vīriešiem galdā — that night Anna wasn't sure until dark of what (food) she should offer, serve to the men viesiem cēla priekšā visu labāko, kas vien patlaban mājā bija — they offered the guests the best (food, drinks) they had at home
  3. (with priekšā “ahead, at the front”) to show, to reveal lit. to lift forward sapulcēs viņš bija cēlis priekšā savu darbu “Senais Latvietis” — in the meetings he had shown his work “The Ancient Latvian”
  4. (with augšā “up(ward)”) to mention, to bring up (something previously known) pagastā runāja, ka Brīviņu ugunsgrēka lietu ceļot augšā — in the parish they were saying that (someone) had apparently brought up the case of the Brīviņu fire
  5. to take (something) across (a body of water), from one shore to the other celt tūristus pāri upei ar plostu — to lift (= take) tourists across the river with a raft “Vilnis” ceļ pasažierus pāri Mazajai Daugavai — the “Vilnis” lifts (= takes) passengers across the Little Daugava (river)
  6. (of skills, knowledge) to build up, to raise, to improve, to develop celt savu kvalifikāciju — to raise, improve one's skills celt darba ražīgumu — to raise, improve (work) productivity mācoties no Padomju Savienības brālīgo tautu literatūras bagātīgās pieredzes, mūsu rakstnieki ceļ savu meistarību — learning from the rich experience of the Soviet Union's brotherly folk literature, our writers develop their skills
  7. (of people) to improve someone's reputation, standing, to dignify tas mani Jēkapeļa acīs lieliski cēla — this (work) raised me (= made me seem more important) in Jēkapelis' eyes vīru ceļ darbi, ne valodas skaļas — work, not loud talk, raises, dignifies people
  8. (colloquial) to raise, to employ, to put to work (in a position of responsibility) celt par priekšnieku — to make (lit. raise) someone a chief kas tad šos par ministriem cels, ja ne mēs paši — who will make (lit. raise, lift) them ministers, if not we ourselves? celt āzi par dārznieku — to raise, to employ a goat as a gardener (= to give a position to someone who cannot be trusted, who will misuse it)
  9. to make (someone) rise, to awaken, to wake up (also figuratively) celt no rīta bērnus augšā — to wake up (lit. lift up(ward)) the children in the morning rītos viņu ceļ gaiļa dziesma — in the morning the rooster's crow wakes him up Lāčplēsis, diženais vīrs, latviešus cīniņā ceļ — the Bear Slayer, a great man, awakened the Latvians in (= to) the struggle
  10. to build, to construct (a house, a building, etc.) celt namu, skolu, rūpnīcu — to build a house, a school, a factory celt pieminekli — to build a monument jauno tiltu cēla draugu, brāļu rokas — the hands of friends and brothers built the new bridge Egles māja bija celta no sarkaniem ķieģeļiem — Egle's house was built of red bricks celt gaisa pilis — to build air castles (i.e., to fantasize, to dream about impossible things)
  11. (figuratively) to build, to make celt jauno dzīvi — to build a new life jau šodien mēs ceļam rītdienu — already today we are building tomorrow Kas pats zin atrast labu, ļaunu, / tas pasauli zin celt par jaunu — he who knows good from evil / can build the world anew
  12. (colloquial) to raise, to make, to create, to generate celt troksni kā elli — to make noise like hell celt traci, paniku — to raise (an) uproar, panic celt kādam neslavu — to raise disrepute, infamy on someone (= to spread compromising information about someone)
  13. (of claims, complaints, objections, protest) to raise, to allege pratināšanas sākumā izmeklētājs jautā apsūdzētajam, vai viņš atzīst sevi par vainīgu celtajā apsūdzībā — at the beginning of the interrogation the investigator asked the accused if he declared himself guilty of the alleged charges amatpersonas, kurām piešķirta tiesība celt protestus, var apturēt attiecīgu spriedumu — officers who were granted the right to raise protests, can stop the corresponding trial labākos kumosus, glītākās drēbes dabūja Dāvis... “viņš jau tāds slimīgs”,» aizstāvēja māte, kad Jūle ar Rūdi cēla iebildumus — Dāvis got the best bites (of food), the pretties clothes... “he is so sickly,” (his) mother defended him, when Jūle and Rūde raised objections
Synonyms: (of "to build") būvēt
related terms:
  • cilāt
  • cildens, cildināt, izcils
censība etymology From censties + ība. The standard stem for this verb has š (es cenšos, “I try”), but dialectally also t (es centos), which explains why there are derived forms with t, like centīgs, centība, and with s, like censonis or sacensība (and also, coloquially, censīgs, censība).{{R:lv:LEV|censties}}
noun: {{lv-noun}}
  1. (colloquial) industriousness, diligence, zeal; alternative form of centība
censībā
noun: {{head}}
  1. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censība
censībai
noun: {{head}}
  1. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censība
censības
noun: {{head}}
  1. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censība
censību
noun: {{head}}
  1. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censība
  2. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censība
censīga
adjective: {{head}}
  1. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgs
  2. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgs
censīgā
adjective: {{head}}
  1. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgs
  2. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgs
{{head}}
  1. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgais
  2. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgais
  3. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgais
censīgai
adjective: {{head}}
  1. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgs
censīgais
adjective: {{lv-adj}}
  1. (colloquial form) the industrious, the diligent, the zealous; lv-definite of censīgs
censīgajā
adjective: {{head}}
  1. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgais
  2. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgais
censīgajai
adjective: {{head}}
  1. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgais
censīgajam
adjective: {{head}}
  1. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgais
censīgajām
adjective: {{head}}
  1. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgais
  2. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgais
censīgajās
adjective: {{head}}
  1. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgais
censīgajiem
adjective: {{head}}
  1. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgais
  2. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgais
censīgajos
adjective: {{head}}
  1. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgais
censīgāk
adverb: {{lv-adv}}
  1. (colloquial form) more industrious, more diligent, more zealous, more industriously, more diligently, more zealously; lv-adv form of censīgāks
censīgāka
adjective: {{head}}
  1. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgāks
  2. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgāks
censīgākā
adjective: {{head}}
  1. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgāks
  2. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgāks
{{head}}
  1. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgākais
  2. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgākais
  3. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgākais
censīgākai
adjective: {{head}}
  1. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgāks
censīgākais
adjective: {{lv-adj}}
  1. (colloquial form) the more industrious, the more diligent, the more zealous; lv-comparative of censīgs
censīgākajā
adjective: {{head}}
  1. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgākais
  2. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgākais
censīgākajai
adjective: {{head}}
  1. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgākais
censīgākajam
adjective: {{head}}
  1. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgākais
censīgākajām
adjective: {{head}}
  1. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgākais
  2. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgākais
censīgākajās
adjective: {{head}}
  1. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgākais
censīgākajiem
adjective: {{head}}
  1. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgākais
  2. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgākais
censīgākajos
adjective: {{head}}
  1. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgākais
censīgākam
adjective: {{head}}
  1. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgāks
censīgākām
adjective: {{head}}
  1. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgāks
  2. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgāks
censīgākas
adjective: {{head}}
  1. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgāks
  2. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgāks
  3. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgāks
censīgākās
adjective: {{head}}
  1. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgāks
{{head}}
  1. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgākais
  2. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgākais
  3. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgākais
  4. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgākais
censīgāki
adjective: {{head}}
  1. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgāks
censīgākie
adjective: {{head}}
  1. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgākais
  2. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgākais
censīgākiem
adjective: {{head}}
  1. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgāks
  2. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgāks
censīgāko
adjective: {{head}}
  1. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgākais
  2. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgākais
  3. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgākais
  4. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgākais
  5. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgākais
  6. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgākais
  7. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgākais
  8. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgākais
censīgākos
adjective: {{head}}
  1. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgāks
{{head}}
  1. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgākais
censīgāks
adjective: {{lv-adj}}
  1. (colloquial form) more industrious, more diligent, more zealous; lv-comparative of censīgs
censīgāku
adjective: {{head}}
  1. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgāks
  2. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgāks
  3. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgāks
  4. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgāks
  5. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgāks
  6. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgāks
censīgākus
adjective: {{head}}
  1. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgāks
censīgam
adjective: {{head}}
  1. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgs
censīgām
adjective: {{head}}
  1. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgs
  2. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgs
censīgas
adjective: {{head}}
  1. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgs
  2. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgs
  3. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgs
censīgās
adjective: {{head}}
  1. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgs
{{head}}
  1. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgais
  2. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgais
  3. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgais
  4. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgais
censīgi
adjective: {{head}}
  1. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgs
adverb: {{lv-adv}}
  1. (colloquial form) diligently, zealously, industriously; lv-adv form of censīgs
censīgie
adjective: {{head}}
  1. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgais
  2. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgais
censīgo
adjective: {{head}}
  1. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgais
  2. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgais
  3. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgais
  4. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgais
  5. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgais
  6. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgais
  7. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgais
  8. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgais
censīgos
adjective: {{head}}
  1. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgs
{{head}}
  1. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgais
censīgs etymology From censties + īgs. The standard stem for this verb has š (es cenšos, “I try”), but dialectally also t (es centos), which explains why there are derived forms with t, like centīgs, centība, and with s, like censonis or sacensība (and also, coloquially, censīgs, censība).{{R:lv:LEV|censties}}
adjective: {{lv-adj}}
  1. (colloquial) industrious, diligent, zealous; alternative form of centīgs
censīgu
adjective: {{head}}
  1. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgs
  2. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgs
  3. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgs
  4. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgs
  5. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgs
  6. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgs
censīgus
adjective: {{head}}
  1. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of censīgs
censonis etymology From censties + onis. The standard stem for this verb has š (es cenšos, “I try”), but dialectally also t (es centos), which explains why there are derived forms with t, like centīgs, centība, and with s, like censonis or sacensība (and also, coloquially, censīgs, censība).{{R:lv:LEV|censties}}
noun: {{lv-noun}}
  1. striver, fighter, assiduous person someone who, while overcoming difficulties, tries to achieve a goal; someone who dedicates himself, all his strength, to a goal dzīves sūrums agrāk apraka jauno censoņu sapņus — life's bitterness soon buried the young fighters' dreams viņš domā par censoņiem, viņu sapņiem, viņu cīniņiem — he thought about the strivers, their dreams, their struggles
related terms:
  • censties
  • centība
  • centīgs, (colloquial) censīgs
  • sacensība
centība Alternative forms: (colloquial form) censība etymology From censties + ība. The standard stem for this verb has š (es cenšos, “I try”), but dialectally also t (es centos), which explains why there are derived forms with t, like centīgs, centība, and with s, like censonis or sacensība (and also, coloquially, censīgs, censība).{{R:lv:LEV|censties}}
noun: {{lv-noun}}
  1. industriousness, diligence, dedication, zeal quality of one who is industrious, hard-working, diligent simpātiska ir jūsu centība, neatlaidīga griba papildināt savu izgītību — pleasant is your diligence, (your) fierce desire to complete your education'
Synonyms: čaklība, čaklums, cītība, uzcītība
related terms:
  • censonis
  • censties
  • centīgs, (colloquial) censīgs
  • sacensība
centīgs Alternative forms: (colloquial form) censīgs etymology From censties + īgs. The standard stem for this verb has š (es cenšos, “I try”), but dialectally also t (es centos), which explains why there are derived forms with t, like centīgs, centība, and with s, like censonis or sacensība (and also, coloquially, censīgs, censība).{{R:lv:LEV|censties}} pronunciation {{rfap}}
adjective: {{lv-adj}}
  1. diligent, zealous, hard-working who insists on trying to do, to obtain something centīgs cilvēks, strādnieks, skolēnsdiligent person, worker, student
  2. diligent, zealous, hard-working which expresses the desire to keep trying to do, to obtain something centīgs gars ir latvju tautai — the Latvian people has a diligent spirit lapa bija aprakstīta ar centīgu, nelīdzenu rokrakstu — the sheet of paper was all covered with zealous, uneven handwriting
Synonyms: aktīvs, čakls, darbīgs, cītīgs, uzcītīgs, izdarīgs, nasks, strādīgs
related terms:
  • censonis
  • censties, cīsties
  • centība, (colloquial) censība
  • sacensība
centriste etymology From centrists + e. pronunciation
  • {{audio}}
noun: {{lv-noun}}
  1. (politics, philosophy) (female) centrist a follower or defender of centrism; a politician of the political center
  2. (colloquial) (female) inhabitant of the center of a city, especially Riga esmu dzimusi centriste — I am a born inhabitant of the center (of Riga)
related terms:
  • centrisms
centrists etymology From centrs + ists pronunciation
  • {{audio}}
noun: {{lv-noun}}
  1. (politics, philosophy) (male) centrist a follower or defender of centrism; a politician of the political center Francijas centrists Bejrū noraida aliansi ar sociālistiem — the French centrist François Bayrou rejects an alliance with the socialists
  2. (colloquial) (male) inhabitant of the center of a city, especially Riga
related terms:
  • centrisms
ciets etymology From Proto-Baltic *kietas, from *keitas, from Proto-Indo-European *key- with an extra (adjectivizing) suffix -to-s. A parallel form with -tyo-s (*keityas, *kietyas) yielded Latvian ciešs. Meaning change: “moving” > “happy, safe, healthy” > “strong, rigid” > “hard.” Cognates include Lithuanian kietas, xsv kit, Prussian keytaro, Proto-Slavic *čitь 〈*čitʹ〉, *čitjь 〈*čitjʹ〉 (Russian dialectal читый 〈čityj〉, Serbo-Croatian čȉt, Slovenian čìt, čít).{{R:lv:LEV}} pronunciation
  • {{lv-IPA}}
{{audio}}
adjective: {{lv-adj}}
  1. (physics) solid having stable form cieta viela, cietvielasolid substance cieti ķermeņisolid bodies cietais kurināmaissolid fuel ciets agregātstāvoklissolid state
  2. hard, solid, rigid difficult to split, crush, bend, etc. ciets minerāls, metālshard, solid mineral, metal ciets tērauds, granītshard, solid steel, granite ciets diamants, asmenshard, solid diamond, blade ciets zīmulishard pencil (with lead that wears out slowly) ciets kā akmenshard, solid as rock visi akmeņi nebūt nav vienādi cieti — not all stones are equally hard
  3. hard, solid having a layer of rock, or snow, or ice cieta augsne, grunts, pļavahard soil, ground, meadow ciets mālshard clay ciets pamatshard, soild foundation uzplēsti seši hektāri cietajā stepes zemē — six hectares of hard steppe land (were) broken up, plowed
  4. (of fabric, cloth) hard, solid strong, difficult to fold or bend; made of such fabric, cloth ciets audeklssolid canvas cieta aitādahard sheepskin ciets zābakshard boot viņš nēsāja uzkreklus ar cietām apkaklītēm — he wore a dickey with a hard collar
  5. (of furniture, cushions, etc.) hard not soft, resistant to pressure ciets dīvāns, spilvenshard sofa, pillow cieta gulta, atzveltnehard bed, back (of chair) tas krēsls man par cietu — that chair is too hard for me
  6. (of body parts, tissue) hard difficult to bend or break citie audihard tissue ciets kaulshard bone cieta ādahard skin cietās aukslējashard palate rokas bija pilnas cietu tulznu — (his) hands were full of hard blisters
  7. (of hands, their skin) hard, harden having strong, harsh skin cietas rokashard hands cieta plaukstahard palm (of hand)
  8. (of hair) thick, strong cieta bārdathick beard cietas ūsasthick mustache
  9. (of plants) hard difficult to bend, squeeze, trim, prune ciets koks, ozolshard tree, oak ciets stumbrs, zarshard trunk, branch ciets graudshard grain šo koku koksne pusotras reizes cietāka par dzelzi — the wood of these trees is one and a half times harder than iron
  10. (of food) hard difficult to bite and chew cieta gaļa, maizehard meat, bread ciets siershard cheese cieta olahard (boiled) egg
  11. (of character, will; of people, their behavior) hard, tough strong, determined, uncompromising, ruthless ciets raksturshard, tough character cieta dabahard, tough nature cieta sirdshard heart (i.e., cruel, ruthless) viņš bija ciets cilvēks — he was a hard, tough man (lit. person) ciets skatienshard look viņa sejas izteiksme bija cieta un nepielūdzama — his facial expression was hard and relentless
  12. (of faces, their features) hard, stiff kad pēc vēja brāzmas viņš pacēla seju augstāk, tā bija kļuvusi pelēki cieta ka sastingusi zeme — when after the wind gust he raised his face, it had become gray hard, stiff like frozen ground
  13. (of thoughts, ideas, promisess) hard, definite, clear, inalterable syn. ciešs ciets solījumssolemn promise kluss vīru pulks... viss gvarda vārdos teikts; vien cietam zvērestam ceļ katrs roku — the regiment of men (was) silent... all the words of the guard (oath) (were) said; every hand rose with one solemn oath
  14. (colloquial) rigid, definite, determined which cannot be arbitrarily changed cieta algarigid wage, salary cietas cenasrigid prices
  15. (of movements) hard, strong, determine mierigiem, cietiem soļiem viņš nāca tuvāk — with calm, strong steps he came closer mātes skāviens ir karsts, ciets, izmisīgs — mother's hug is warm, strong, desperate
  16. (of sleep) tight syn. ciešs visa nakts tad bija pavadīta cietā, veselīgā miegā — the whole night was spent in tight, healthy sleep
  17. (of water) hard which contains salts, usually of calcium and magnesium ciets ūdens mazgāšanai nav derīgshard water is not appropriate for washing
  18. (of wind, weather) strong, sharp jūra bija balta un ziemeļu vējš kļuva aizvien cietāks — the sea was white and the northern wind became increasingly harder, sharper ja priedes tā šūpojas, tad ir vētra, ciets laiks, kā saka tēvs — if the pines are swaying like that, then there is a storm, hard weather, as father said / used to say
  19. (adverbial form; of people, objects) tight(ly) close, close together syn. ciešs, cieši cieti citu pie citasvery close one by the other
Synonyms: (of "hard, solid, rigid") stings, stingrs, stīvs, (of "thick"; "concentrated (look)"; "strong (movement)"; "sleep"; "close together") ciešs
antonyms:
  • (of "state of matter") šķidrs (“liquid”), gāzveidīgs (“gaseous”)
  • (of "hard", including "hard water") mīksts
related terms:
  • ciešs
  • ciet
  • cietoksnis
cītība etymology From cīsties + ība, a less frequently used synonym (and ultimately also cognate) of censties (q.v.).{{R:lv:LEV|censties}}
noun: {{lv-noun}}
  1. industriousness, diligence, zeal quality of one who is industrious, hard-working, diligent apbrīnojama cītība — admirable zeal strādāt ar lielu cītību — to work with great diligence, dedication
Synonyms: centība, (colloquial) censība, čaklība, čaklums, uzcītība
cūkas
noun: {{head}}
  1. lv-inflection of cūka
  2. lv-inflection of cūka
  3. lv-inflection of cūka
  4. lv-inflection of cūka
  5. (colloquial) the name of a certain card game cūkas” jeb “duraki” ir kāršu spēle, kuras mērķis ir atbrīvoties no rokās esošajām kārtīm — “pigs,” or “fools,” is a card game whose objective it is to get rid of all the cards in one's hands
čaklība etymology From čakls + ība.
noun: {{lv-noun}}
  1. industriousness, diligence, zeal quality of that which is industrious, hard-working, diligent Lonija ar savu čaklību iekaroja Andreja mātes sirdi — Lonija with her diligence won Andrew's mother's heart
Synonyms: centība, (colloquial) censība, cītība, uzcītība, čaklums
čaklums etymology From čakls + ums.
noun: {{lv-noun}}
  1. industriousness, diligence, zeal quality of that which is industrious, hard-working, diligent bites čaklums — a bee's industriousness par namamātes čaklumu un gaumi runā telpas spodrība, logu aizkari... — the room's cleanliness, the window curtains bespoke the hostess' diligence and taste
Synonyms: centība, (colloquial) censība, cītība, uzcītība, čaklība
čau
interjection: {{head}}
  1. hello, hi informal greeting said when meeting someone
  2. bye informal farewell
čoms etymology From English chum. Alternative historical forms: čomis, čums. First attested use – 1907.{{R:alv}} pronunciation
  • {{lv-IPA}}
noun: {{lv-noun}}
  1. (colloquial) a male friend, a buddy, a pal example(..) tiklīdz kuģis ostā, otrā dienā jau visi «čomiņi» lapās. As soon as the ship has entered the port (you can expect that) on the next day all the "fellas" will be gone.
dabūt etymology A Borrowing from Russian добыть, itself derived from быть 〈bytʹ〉. Given its archaic form dabuit (attested in 17th-century dictionaries), this borrowing must have happened before the 13th century, when ы had the sound ui. A different (minority) opinion is that dabūt was not borrowed, but is related to dobt and to dialectal dābt.{{R:lv:LEV}} pronunciation
  • {{lv-IPA}}
{{audio}}
verb: {{lv-verb}}
  1. to get, to obtain to become the holder, possessor of something dabūt biļetes uz koncertu — to get, obtain tickets to the concert dabūt aizdoto naudu atpakaļ — to get the loaned money back dabūt labu palīgu, darbu — to get good help, a job dabūt vīru, sievu — to get a husband, a wife turi, meita, godu savu, tu vairs citu nedabūsi — keep, daughter, your honor, you will not get anything else
  2. to get, to find kur jūs dabūjāt šos ziedus? — where did you get these flowers? šo grāmatu vairs nekur nevar dabūt — this book cannot be found anywhere anymore
  3. to get, to buy loterijas biļetes var dabūt visās iestādēs, uzņēmumos — one can get lotery tickets in all institutions (and) enterprises
  4. to get a result, to succeed in get dabūt telefona savienojumu — to get a telephone connection ātri dabūt tālsarunu — to get a long-distance call dabūt no vietnieka parakstu — to get a signature from the deputy
  5. to get, to receive dabūt vēstules — to get, receive letters dabūt labu atzīmi — to get a good grade dabūt dāvanu — to receive a present cik dabūji par sviestu? — how much (money) did you get for the butter? savu nosaukumu Galariji ir dabūjuši no tā, ka atradās pašā ciema galā — the Galaraji got their name from the fact that they are located at the very end of the village
  6. to get, to become sick with (a disease) dabūt iesnas — to get a cold pasaule runāja, ka viņš savā laikā pārdzēries un no tā dabūjis iekšās audzēju — the world (= people) say that he drank too much in his time and from (= because of) this he got a visceral tumor
  7. to get, to accomplish (some physical work, usually with effort) dabūt kurpi kājā — to get the shoes on (one's) feet dabūt logu vaļā — to get the window open dabūt vārtus ciet — to get the gates shut, closed dabūt skapi pa durvīm iekšā — to get the cupboard in through the door dabūt kastei vāku nost — to get the lid off the box dabūt bērnu gultā — to get the child in bed dabūt prom ziņkārīgos — to get the curious (to move) away dabūt rokas tīras — to get (one's) hands clean dabūt cietušo pie samaņas — to get the victim conscious (= to make him/her regain consciousness)
  8. to get the chance, the opportunity (to do something) dabūt nosnausties — to get (the chance) to take a nap dabūt dzirdēt jauno ziņu — to get to hear the new message dabūt zināt — to get to know viņš nedabūja nobeigt, jo mūsu meitenes sacēla tādu brēku, ka Ādolfam neatlika nekas cits kā iesākto domu pavedienu pārtraukt — he didn't get to finish, because our girls raised such noise that Ādolfs had no choice but to stop (his) ongoing thread of thought
  9. to get to be subjected to some physical or emotional effect dabūt triecienu — to get a shock dabūt pļauku — to get a slap dabūt pērienu — to get a beating dabūt rājienu — to get a reprimand dabūt sodu — to get a punishment dabūt pa pirkstiem — to get (= be hit) on the fingers es dabūju tādu belzienu pa kaklu, ka acīs man satumsa — I got such a blow on the neck that my eyes (= vision) went black Māri, beidz pļāpāt muļķības! pateikšu vecmāmiņai, tad tu dabūsi! — Māris, stop blabbering nonsense! I'll tell grandmother, then you will get it (= punishment)
  10. to get to be damaged, harmed by something pulkstenis dabūjis triecienu — the clock got a shock, a blow
  11. (colloquial) to get to, to have to to feel forced, pressured to do something dabūju iet atpakaļ uz mājām — I got to, had to go back home dabūju nogaidīt līdz vēlam vakaram — I got to, had to wait until late at night par to man dabūsi samaksāt! — for this you will get, have to pay me! zēns dabūjis uzdevumu pārrakstīt — the boy got to, had to rewrite his task (= homework)
daikts etymology Initially the past particle of an earlier verb *daigt (i.e., “pierced (thing)” > “(piercing) instrument” > “tool, thing”), from Proto-Baltic *daig-, an variant of Proto-Indo-European *dʰēygʷ-, *dʰīgʷ- (whence also dīgt, q.v.), from *dʰē-. Cognates include Lithuanian dáiktas (cf. also dáigyti).{{R:lv:LEV|dīgt}}
noun: {{lv-noun}}
  1. (colloquial) tool, instrument; also, thing uz galda, divas tintnīcas, gūzma rakstāmo daiktu — on the table, two inkwells, a bunch of writing tools vienā istabā atpūtās ēvelsols, lielie namdara kalti, ēveles un citi daikti — in one room there was a carpenter bench, large carpenter chisels, planes and other tools apbruņojies ar grābekli, kapli, lāpstu un citiem tīrīšanai vajadzīgiem daiktiem, tēvocis Antons sāk dārzā spodrības nedēļas darbus — armed with rake, hoe, shovel and other cleaning tools, uncle Antons begins the work of cleaning week in the garden nevarētu ticēt, ka šie resnie pirksti diendienā rīkojas ar tiem smalkākajiem daiktiem dažādos mūzikas instrumentos, atrod visnoslēptākos bojājumus un prot tos izlabot — one could not believe that these fat fingers handled every day the smallest gadgets, tools in various musical instruments, found the most hidden imperfections and fixed them
Synonyms: (of "tool") rīks, darbarīks, (of "thing") lieta
daiļums etymology From daiļš + ums.
noun: {{lv-noun}}
  1. (usually, in the singular) beauty the quality of that which is beautiful daiļums un grācijabeauty and grace kustību daiļumsbeauty of movements, motion krāsu un līniju daiļumsbeauty of color and line daiļuma izpratne — understanding of beauty pilsētiņā, ir skvēri, ir puķes gar ietvēm... redzams, cilvēki te domā arī par daiļumu — in the little town there are sqaures, flowers along the sidewalks... clearly, people here think also about beauty
  2. (colloquial, usually plural) (women's) beautiful forms, charm Vallija apzinājās savu sievišķīgu pievilcību un to izmantoja; ieejot direktora kabinetā un izejot no tā, viņa koķeti gorījās, veikli parādīdama savus daiļumus — Vallija was aware of her female attractiveness and used it; while going into the director's office or coming out of it, she moved flirtatiously, showing her charms
Synonyms: glītums, skaistums, (poetic term) daile
antonyms:
  • neglītums
dancināt etymology From dancot + ināt. pronunciation {{rfap}}
verb: {{head}}
  1. lv-inflection of dancināt
{{lv-verb}}
  1. (dated sense) to invite to dance, to lead while dancing, to dance with (someone) dancināt visas meitas pēc kārtas — to dance with all women one after the other sestdienas vakaros tepat pie lielajām apsēm puiši meitas dancināja, ka brunči vien pa gaisu plīvoja — Friday night the boys danced with the girls right here, by the big aspen trees
  2. (colloquial) to cause to dance (or to jump, to move fast) gans dancinājis velnu — the shepherd made the devil dance dancināt kumeļu — to make the colt dance (= trot with a dancing gate, raising its legs) dancināt pātagu — to make the whip dance (+ to move it quickly, as if whipping someone)
  3. (colloquial) to make someone carry out several task, order, whim Udris bieži gāja restorānos un ar sevišķu prieku dancināja sulaiņus — Udris often went to restaurants and with special pleasure made the servants dance (= work)
related terms:
  • dancis
  • dancot
dancot etymology From the same source as dancis, made into a 2nd-conjugation verb (ending -ot). pronunciation {{rfap}}
verb: {{lv-verb}}
  1. (dated sense) to dance (especially ballroom dance) ņemt, lūgt dancot — to take, to invite to dance dancot ar kādu pārī — to dance with someone as a pair tā kā Vecurijos nebija kambara, kur dancot, kāzinieki jau vakarpusē pārgāja uz Upesrijiem — since in Veecuriji there was no ballrom where (one could) dance, the wedding party went in the evening over to Upesriji
  2. (colloquial, of animals) to dance to make quick, often jumping, movements mušas dancoja pa loga rūtīm — the flies were dancing along the window panes zirgs iet, dancodams vien — the horse goes, dancing (= trotting) alone govis danco pa aploku — the cow dances (= moves around) in the corral
  3. (colloquial, of people) to dance to obey someone's orders unquestioningly gan tu man dancosi! — you will dance to (= for) me (= do what I say) likums dancos pēc manas gribas — the law will dance to my will
Synonyms: dejot
related terms:
  • dancis
darbarīks {{slim-wikipedia}} Alternative forms: darba rīks etymology From darba ‘work[genitive]’ + rīks ‘instrument’. pronunciation {{audio}}
noun: {{lv-noun}}
  1. (work) tool instrument necessary for a certain work akmens laikmeta darbarīki — stone age tools zemkopības darbarīki — agricultural tools amatnieku darbarīki — craftsman tools namdara darbarīku komplekts — carpentry tool kit ļaudis atgriežās nākamās dienas rītā un atveda smago automašīnu, virpas, urbi un sīkākus darbarīkus — the people came back the following day and brought in a truck, lathes, a drill and other smaller tools
Synonyms: (colloquial term) daikts, rīks
debils etymology Ultimately a Borrowing from Latin dēbilis, via some other European language. pronunciation
  • {{lv-IPA}}
{{audio}}
  • {{lv-IPA}}
{{audio}}
adjective: {{lv-adj}}
  1. moron, mentally retarded having impaired mental development debils bērns — mentally retarded child Itālijā skolotāja liek skolniekam rakstīt, ka viņš ir debils — in Italy a teacher made a schoolboy write that he was mentally retarded
  2. (colloquial, offensive) moronic, stupid, foolish Andris Kivičs nosauc Uldi Rudaku par debilu — Andris Kivičs called Uldis Rudaks a moron debils jautājumsstupid, moronic question tas ir vecs un debils stereotips — this is an old, stupid stereotype
In its colloquial uses, perhaps under the influence of the pronunciation of Russian деби́л 〈debíl〉, this term is often misspelled as debīls, with a long ī. Synonyms: idiotisks, imbecils
degt etymology From Proto-Baltic *deg- (Proto-Balto-Slavic infinitive *degtei{{R:Kim PBS}}), from Proto-Indo-European *dʰegʷʰ-. Cognates include Lithuanian dègti, xsv degt, Prussian dagis (cf. Lithuanian dagà), Proto-Slavic *žeťi < *geg- < *degtei (Church Slavic жєщи 〈žêŝi〉, Russian жгу 〈žgu〉, Belarusian жгаць 〈žgacʹ〉, Ukrainian dialectal жегти 〈žegti〉), Middle Irish daig, genitive dega, Gothic 𐌳𐌰𐌲𐍃 〈𐌳𐌰𐌲𐍃〉, English day, Sanskrit दहति 〈dahati〉, Latin foveō, favilla (< *dʰegʷʰ-), xto tsäk-, txb tsak.{{R:lv:LEV}} pronunciation
  • {{lv-IPA}}
{{audio}}
verb: {{lv-verb}}
  1. of objects, substances to burn to be consumed by fire degt lēni, strauji — to burn slowly, quickly degt ar spožu liesmu — to burn with a bright flame degt bez dūmiem — to burn without smoke papiross deg — the cigarette is burning māja, pilsēta, mežs deg — the house, the city, the forest is burning malka deg krāsnī — the firewood is burning in the stove slapjie žagari slikti deg — wet birches burn badly
  2. (only 3rd person, of fire itself) to burn pakalna vidū neliel ieplakā deg ugunskurs... deg gaiši, līksmi, priecīgi — in the middle of the hill, in a little hollow place, the campfire is burning... it burns bright, cheerful, happy krāsnī gaiši dega uguns, sarkanām mēlēm laizīdama lielās, sausās egļu pagales — in the stove the fire burned bright, licking the big, dry spruce logs with (its) red tongues
  3. (of food, pans, etc.) to burn to be heated, roasted, baked etc. in excess gaļa deg pannā — the meat is burning in a pan maize krāsnī deg — the bread is burning in the oven panna deg — the pan is burning
  4. (of substances) to burn to be flammable, to be capable of burning labi deg arī dažu viegli gaistošu šķidrumu: ētera, spirta, acetona, benzola, benzīna un citu — several volatile fluids also burn well: ether, alcohol, acetone, benzene, gasoline and others
  5. (of objects) to burn, to be on to produce heat and/or light gāzes plīts deg — the gas stove is burning (= on) sērkociņš deg — the match is burning lāpa deg — the torch is burning (= on) uz galda deg tauku svece — on the table a fat candle was burning pazemē šahtā deg dienasgaismas spuldzes — underground, in the mine, the fluorescent lights are burning (= are on) pārbaudīt, vai spuldzes deg — to check if the light bulb works (lit. burns) gaisma deg visās istabās — the light is on (lit. burning) in all rooms
  6. (of heavenly bodies) to burn, to shine brightly, to produce light bet augšā deg liela, liela, balta saule, un zilās debesis ir bezgalīgi dziļas un plašas — but up above a big, big white sun is burning, and the blue sky is infinitely deep and wide viņai likās, ka zvaigznes, kas spožas un dzirkstošas dega pie rudens debess, mirkšķina viņai — it seemed to her that the stars, which were burning (= shining) sparkingly on the autumn sky, were winking at her
  7. (of people, their body parts) to burn to feel an intense feeling of heat, or an intense irritation, intense pain; also metaphorically karstā ūdenī rokas deg — (one's) hands burn in hot water seja deg saulē — (his) face burns in the sun rokas deg no sala — (his) hands are burning from the frost vējā vaigi deg — (one's) cheeks burn in the cool wind vaigi deg aiz kauna — (one's) cheeks burn with shame kad lapsene iedur, tā vieta deg tikpat kā ugunī — when a wasp stings, the place burns just like fire ēšanu vēl varētu paciest, bet slāpes bija neizturamas... mute izkaltusi, un rīkle dega kā izplucināta — eating could be tolerated, but the thirst was unbearable... the mouth was dry, and the throat burned as if scalded
  8. (figuratively, of illnesses, ill people) to burn, to be hot to have a fever slimais deg kā ugunī — the sick person was burning as if in a fire (= had a strong fever) bērns dega kā uguns un drebēja no sala — the child was hot like fire and trembled from the cold mājās pārbraukusi, degu un karšu... laikam esmu apsaldējusies un man sacēlies drudzis, es domāju un izmērīju temperatūru — having returned home, I am burning and hot... maybe I've caught a cold and now have a fever, I think and measure (my) temperature
  9. (figuratively, colloquial, of hay, grass, etc.) to heat up in humidity, in humid condition}} slapjais siens šķūnī deg — the wet hay is burning in the barn zaļbarība kaudzē deg — the grass fodder is burning in a pile
  10. (figuratively, of people, their feelings) to burn to feel an emotion very strongly; to desire something very strongly degt ilgās — to burn with (lit. in) longing, desire degt dusmās — to burn with (lit. in) anger degt aizrautībā — to burn with (lit. in) passion degt priekā — to burn with (lit. in) joy degt ziņkārē — to burn with (lit. in) curiosity degtin degt pēc darba — to burn (= yearn) for work viņš deg par moderno mūziku — he burns (= is enthusiastic) about modern music brīvības ilgas dega tautā visu garo verdzības nakti — the desire for freedom burned in the people all through the long night of slavery sejas dega satraukumā, un lūpas bija pavērtas brīvības saucienam — (their) faces burned with (lit. in) excitement, and (their) lips were open to cries of freedom degdams naidā pret latviešu tautas, tās valodas un kultūras noniecinātājiem, Kronvaldu Atis uzbrūk feodālajiem vācu kungiemburning with (lit. in) hate against those who belittled the Latvian people, their language and culture, Atis Kronvalds attacked the German feudal lords tu sajūti, ka esi dzīvs, ka vari degt par visu jauno — you feel that you are alive, that you can burn (= yearn) for everything new
  11. (figuratively, in the 3rd person, of fights, struggles) to burn to happen intensely deg nemieri valsts sirdī pašā — unrest is burning in the very heart of the country
  12. (figuratively, in the 3rd person, colloquial) to be urgent, to be in a hurry bet es varu pagaidīt; man vēl nedeg — but I can wait; I am not yet in a hurry (lit. it is not yet burning to me) es arī aizskrēju uz upmalu... pabradāju, papeldējos un tūlīt atkal uz mājām... “tu tā bizo? kas tev deg?” — I also ran to the river bank... I paddle and swim a little and then I go immediately back home. “(why) are you galloping like that? what is burning to you? (= why the hurry?)”
Except in metaphor uses (“to have a fever,” “to burn with anger,” etc.), degt usually occurs only in the third person. Synonyms: kurties
dēls etymology From Proto-Baltic *dē-, from Proto-Indo-European *dʰē-, *dʰeh₁(y)- 〈*dʰeh₁(y)-〉 (whence also Latvian dēle, q.v.); the original meaning was thus “one to nurse,” “suckling one,” “baby” (cf. Latin fello, filius < *fēlios < *dʰeh₁(y)-li-os 〈*dʰeh₁(y)-li-os〉). Cognates include Proto-Slavic *dětę (Russian дети 〈deti〉). The term dēls replaced an earlier *sūn(u)s, the original Indo-European word for “son” (cf. Lithuanian sūnùs, English son, Russian сын 〈syn〉). This is usually explained as the result of taboo: the ‘real’ word for “son” was avoided so as not to attract the attention of evil spirits. Note that the languages that lack a reflex of this original word (Latin, Celtic, Latvian) also lack the corresponding word for “daughter” (cf. Lithuanian duktė, Russian дочь 〈dočʹ〉, German Tochter); this suggests that there may have been dialectal differences in Proto-Indo-European concerning words for children.{{R:lv:LEV}} pronunciation
  • {{lv-IPA}}
  • {{audio}}
noun: {{lv-noun}}
  1. son a male child, in relation to his parents dēls ar māti — a son with (his) mother jaunākais, vecākais dēls — youngest, oldest son pašu dēls — (one's) own son īstais dēls — real son vienīgais dēls — the only son brāļa, māsas dēls — nephew (lit. brother's, sister's son) dēls ļoti rūpējās par saviem vecākiem — the son takes great care of his parents
  2. (colloquial) son a form of address used by an older person talking to a younger man “Grobiņa tēv, vai tu domā, ka tava nauda nestāv droši?” Jānis jautāja; “... nu, dēls, par drošību, drošības dēļ nav ko runāt...” — “Father (of the) Grobiņš (= Mr Grobiņš), do you think that your money is not safe?” Jānis asked; “... well, son, there is nothing to say about, about security...”
  3. (poetic) son a member of a people, group, etc. Latvijas zemes dēls — a son of the land of Latvia (= a Latvian) dažādu tautu dēli un meitas — the sons and daughters of various nations
desot
verb: {{lv-verb}}
  1. (informal) To run desot uz mājām — to run home (verbified form of sausage)
dibens
noun: {{lv-noun}}
  1. bottom, lower part, base pudeles dibensbottom of the bottle laivas dibensbottom of the boat notīrīt katla dibenu — to clean the bottom of the boiler
  2. bottom lower internal part, especially of a container, or its contents maisa dibenā vēl ir milti — there is still flour at the bottom of the sack nogrimt dibenā — to sink to the bottom izdzert glāzi līdz dibenam — to drink a glass to the bottom
  3. bottom, lower part of bodies of water, holes, etc. jūras, upes dibens — the bottom of the sea, of the river dīķī ūdens sasalis līdz dibenam — the water in the pond froze to the bottom
  4. back the deepest or farthest part of a space, a room, etc. istabas dibens — the back of the room skatuves dibens — the back of the stage, backstage
  5. (anatomy) behind, bottom rear lower part of the human body uzdot bērnam pa dibenu — to hit, spank a child on his behind
Synonyms: pēcpuse (vulgar)
dievišķīgs etymology From dievišķs + īgs (with dievišķs from dievs + išķs). pronunciation {{audio}}
adjective: {{lv-adj}}
  1. divine, godlike typical or characteristic of god, of a deity filozofi māca, ka sabiedrisko attīstību noteic kāda dievišķīga griba — (some) philosophers teach that some divine will determines social development ej dzejas taku, ir tevī dievišķīgā dzirksts — go (by) the path of poetry, the divine spark is in you
  2. (colloquial) divine, fantastic, wonderful, excellent impressively good, pleasant viņa priekšā grāmata, viņa dievišķīgais Kants — a book in front of him, his divine Kant lūdzu Ķikuļa kungu, lai viņš man pasaka dažus vārdus itāliski... viņš brīnījās par manu vēlēšanos, bet es teicu, ka gribu mazliet praktizēties šajā dievišķīgajā mēlē — I asked Mr Ķikulis to tell me a few words in Italian... he was surprised by my wish, but I said that I want to practice this divine tongue a little
Synonyms: (of "divine", "godlike") dievišķs, (of "wonderful", "excellent") brīnišķīgs, lielisks
antonyms:
  • dēmonisks
  • sātanisks
  • velnišķs, velnišķīgs
related terms:
  • dievišķs
dievišķs etymology From dievs + išķs. pronunciation {{audio}}
adjective: {{lv-adj}}
  1. divine, godlike typical or characteristic of god; supernatural vajadzīgs kāds nemateriāls (dievišķs) process, kas šo tāldarbību vienā mirklī pārnes no viena debess ķermeņa uz otru — some non-material (divine) process (was) necessary to transmit in one moment (= instantly) this influence (i.e., gravitation) from one celestial body to another kas viņi, šie rakstnieki? vai nereāli, dievišķas ģenialitātes apstaroti tēli vai cilvēki, kas ar spalvu rokās cīnījās par kādu labāku, taisnīgāku dzīves iekārtu? — who (are) they, these writers? unreal beings illuminated by divine geniality, or people who fought, pen in hand, for a better, fairer order?
  2. (colloquial, syn. dievišķīgs) divine, fantastic, wonderful impressively good viņam ir vēl kāds desmits sīkāku skrambu un belzienu pa visu viņa nepārspējamo, dievišķo, jauko augumu — he has still some ten small bruises and wounds all over his incomparable, divine, nice body (~ stature)
antonyms:
  • dēmonisks
  • sātanisks
  • velnišķs, velnišķīgs
related terms:
  • dievība
  • dievināt
  • dievišķīgs
  • dievs, dieve, dieviete
dot etymology From earlier *duoti, *duotie, from Proto-Balto-Slavic *dōtei, from Proto-Indo-European, *deh₃- 〈*deh₃-〉. The present tense forms are new formations, replacing the old athematic forms (still attested in dialectal forms like domu instead of dodu). The past tense forms are from earlier *davu (cf. Lithuanian daviau); the e was extended from the past active participle form devis (< *devens < *de-d-wens). Cognates include Lithuanian dúoti, Prussian dat, xsv dodi (< *duodi), Proto-Slavic *dati (Church Slavic дати 〈dati〉, Russian дать 〈datʹ〉, Ukrainian дати 〈dati〉, Belarusian даць 〈dacʹ〉, Bulgarian дам 〈dam〉, Czech dáti, Polish dać), Sanskrit ददाति 〈dadāti〉, दातुम् 〈dātum〉, Ancient Greek δίδωμι 〈dídōmi〉, Latin dare, .{{R:lv:LEV}} pronunciation
  • {{lv-IPA}}
{{audio}}
verb: {{lv-verb}}
  1. to give to hand to someone, so that s/he can have it dot lakatu mātei — to give a scarf to (one's) mother dot ziedus — to give flowers dot draugam grāmatu izlasīt — to give a friend a book to read dot atslēgas — to give the keys dot kasierei naudu — to give money to the cashier dot bērnam maizes šķēli — to give a child a slice of bread dot govīm sienu — to give hay to the cows dot sienu — to give hay (to throw it with a fork) dot mēslojumu — to give fertilizer, to fertilize (land, soil) dot ēst — to give food (lit. to give to eat) dot bērnam krūti — to give (one's) breast to a child (= to nurse, breastfeed a child) dot roku — to give (one's) hand (= to wave, to greet someone, to shake hands, to hold hands) dot maizi — to give bread; to provide food (e.g., in old age) bet kas tad tev vecumā dos maizi? — but who will give you bread (= provide you with food) in (your) old age?
  2. to give, to provide to allow the use of a material object, to free a place for someone else's use dot autobusu ekskursijai — to give a bus to the excursion dot naktsmājas tūristiem — to provide accommodation for tourists dot asinis, kaula smadzenes — to give (= donate) blood, bone marrow dot trolejbusā vietu vecākiem pasažieriem — to give one's place on the trolley to older passengers kā es vēlāk uzzināju, mājas pagaidām dod tikai ģimenēm — as I later found out, for the time being they are giving houses only to families
  3. (colloquial) to give in marriage krievi, krievi, leiši, leiši... visi man draugi, radi; krievam devu savu māsiņu, pats es ņēmu leišu meitu — Russians, Russians, Lithuanians, Lithuanians... all friends, relatives to me; to a Russian I gave my little sister, (and) I myself took a Lithuanian girl (as wife)
  4. (colloquial) to allow (e.g., a son or daughter) to work, to be employ dot dēlu par ganu — to give a son as a shepherd (= to allow a son to work as a shepherd)
  5. to give, to grant, to procure, to secure (a state, circumstance) dot darbu — to give work dot atvaļinājumu — to give a holiday dot patstāvību, brīvību — to give autonomy, freedom dot priekšroku — to give (one's) preference (to...) dot iespēju — to give the opportunity, the possibility (of...) man bija dots mēness, lai atpūstos pēc ziemas darbiem — a month was given to me, so that I would rest after winter's work
  6. to give, to dedicate, to donate, to provide (at birth) tev, meistar, dodam mīlestību savu — to you, master, we give our love arī tas taisnums māksla, to iemācīties nevarēja, tas cilvēkam vai nu dots no paša sākuma, vai palika visu mūžu nesasniegts — also that straightness (is) art, one can't learn it, either it is given from the very beginning (= from birth), or it remains unobtained (for one's) whole life
  7. (dated sense) to allow, to permit stāstu mātei, ka Dāvis man dod braukt patstāvīgi — I tell (my) mother that Dāvis gave (= allowed) me to drive by myself
  8. to give to express orally or in writing dot rīkojumu — to give instructions, orders dot pavēli — to give a command, an order dot norādījumus — to give instructions dot atļauju — to give permission dot solījumu — to make (lit. give) a promise dot zvērestu — to take (lit. give) an oath dot ieteikumu — to give a recommendation dot parakstu — to give (one's) signature (= to sign) dot liecību — to bear, give testimony dot norēķinu — to give a report (of one's actions) dot vārdu, nosaukumu — to give a name, a denomination dot ziņu — to give knowledge of (= to report; to announce)
  9. to give to add to a text dot vārdnīcai stilistiskās norādes — to give a dictionary stylistic references piezīmes dotas parindēs — comments (are) given in parentheses
  10. (mathematics, usually in the past passive participle form dots) to be given, to be known from the start dotais lielumsgiven quantity uzdevums bija kvadrāta un taisnstūra laukuma aprēķināšana, ja dots perimetrs — the task was the calculation of the square and rectangular area, if the perimeter is given kopu uzskata par dotu, ja ir dots pilns tās elementu saraksts — a set is considered to be given if a full list of its elements is given
  11. (of physical or mental states) to give (to create, to inspire, to generate) dot drosmi cīņā — to give courage in (= to) fight dot možumu — to give liveliness dot prieku — to give joy, pleasure dot mieru — to give peace (of mind) dot iemeslu — to give (= create, be) a reason cerība viņus sildīja un deva jaunus spēkus cīņai par savu dzīvību — hope warmed them and gave (them) new strength for the fight for their lives neesmu taču ne mazāko iemeslu devis, kas tai būtu varējis modināt cerības — I haven't given even the slightest reason to arouse expectations, hopes
  12. (of results, effects) to give, to provide, to be the cause (of something) eksperiments dod gaidītos resultātus — the experiment is giving the expected results pētījums dod jaunas atziņas — the study gives new insights dot ēnu, paēnu — to give (= create) shade, a shadow (e.g., a tree) ko tas (mums) dod? — what does this give (us)? (= what good is there in it for us?)
  13. (of material objects, values; also of spiritual or cultural values) to give, to produce, to create dot produkciju virs plāna — to give production (= to produce) above the plan govs dod daudz piena — (this) cow gives a lot of milk jaunā aitu šķirne dod augstvērtīgu vilnu — the new breed of sheep gives high-quality wool augļu koki pēc dziļām ziemām dažkārt dod bagātīgas augļu ražas — fruit trees after deep winters sometimes give abundant fruit harvests elektriskais motors dos baltu, spodru gaismu — the electric motor will give white, bright light pēdējā laikā gleznotājs devis vairākas vērtīgas gleznas — in recent times, (this) painter has given (= produced) many valuable paintings visvairāk latviešu literārā valodā iesakņojušos jaunvārdu devuši J. Alunāns, Kronvaldu Atis, Rainis un A. Upīts — most of the new words that struck root in the Latvian literary languages (were) given (by) J. Alunāns, Kronvaldu Atis, Rainis and A. Upīts
  14. (colloquial) to give, to pay jauna mašīna maksā četrus tūkstošus, jūsēja ir pietiekami nobraukta, lai par to nedotu pat pusotra — a new car costs four thousand, (but) yours is quite traveled, so that (one) wouldn't give one and a half thousand (= fifteen hundred)
  15. (colloquial, a person's age, by sight) to give, to estimate as Mare vēl bija izskatīga sieva, četrdesmit sešus viņai gandrīz nevarēja dot — Mare was still a handsome woman, you almost couldn't give her forty-six (years of age)
  16. (colloquial) to hit dot pa ādu — to give on the skin (= to beat, to flog, to thrash) tevi kāds sit, dod pretī, neļaujies apvainot! — (if) someone hits you, give (= hit) back, don't let (him) offend you! viņš deva ar cirvi lācim pa pauri, lācis beigts — he gave (hit) the bear on the top of the head with an axe, the bear (is now) finished (= dead) es šim vīram devu vienu pliķi — I gave this man a slap (= I slapped his face)
  17. (colloquial) to shoot, to give a shot nedomā kustēt! ja bēgsi, no abiem stobriem tev došu stilbos — don't (even) think about moving! if you run, from both barrels I will give (= shoot) (you) in the leg
duraki
noun: {{head}}
  1. lv-inflection of duraks
  2. lv-inflection of duraks
  3. (colloquial, in the plural) a certain card game “cūkas” jeb “duraki” ir kāršu spēle, kuras mērķis ir atbrīvoties no rokās esošajām kārtīm — “pigs,” or “fools,” is a card game whose objective it is to get rid of all the cards in one's hands
duraks etymology A Borrowing from Russian дурак.
noun: {{lv-noun}}
  1. (colloquial) fool, stupid person tu nevari izrēķināt, tāpēc ka tu esi duraks, bet es varu — you can't do math, because you're stupid, but I can slidām skriet jau var katrs duraks, bet pamēģini tu dziedāt — any fool can run on skates, but you just try to sing
  2. (colloquial, in the plural) a certain card game “cūkas” jeb “duraki” ir kāršu spēle, kuras mērķis ir atbrīvoties no rokās esošajām kārtīm — “pigs,” or “fools,” is a card game whose objective it is to get rid of all the cards in one's hands
Since duraks is a relatively recent and obvious borrowing from Russian, many speakers consider it incorrect and suggest the use of muļķis instead. Synonyms: (of "fool", "stupid") muļķis, stulbenis, neprātis, idiots, debils (adjective), imbecils (adjective), (of "card game") cūkas
dzelonis etymology From dzelt + onis. pronunciation {{audio}}
noun: {{lv-noun}}
  1. sting, stinger attack organ in some insects and arachnids with which poison is injected bites, lapsenes dzelonis — bee, wasp sting izraut bites dzeloni no pirksta — to pull out a bee sting from (one's) finger skorpioni nekož, bet dzeļ ar ķermeņa astes galā atrodošos dzeloni — scorpions don't bite, (they) sting with a sting located at the end of their tail
  2. (colloquial) snake's poison fang čūskai ir dzeloņi; tie sāpīgi dzeļ — snakes have poison fangs (lit. stings); they bite (lit. sting) painfully
  3. (figuratively, of thoughts, words, behavior) which offend, hurt one's feeling Līzei kā sīks dzelonis sirdī iedūra novērojums, ka pirmām kārtām pie galda sēdināja turīgos saimniekus — the observation that they had seated the rich landowners at the best places at the table pierced Līze's heart like a small sting viņa no Balodienes nebija dzirdējusi neviena vārda, kurš nebūtu bijis bez dzeloņiem — she hadn't heard a single word from Balodiene, which wouldn't have been without stings Zenta brālim šad tad iedzēla ar savu greizsirdības dzeloni — Zenta stung (her) brother every now and then with the sting of her jealousy
  4. (usually, in the plural) thorn, prickle needle-like rigid protuberance(s) on some plants or animals kaktusa dzeloņi — cactus thorns alveja ir vienkāršs augs ar garām, resnām, sulīgām lapām, kuru malas parasti klātas ar mīkstiem dzeloņiem — aloe vera is a simple plant with long, thick, succulent leaves, with edges covered with soft thorns jūras buļļu dzimtā ir mazas un vidējas zivi; visām sugām ir dzeloņi un izaugumi uz galvas — in the sea scorpion family there are small and middle(-sized) fish; all species have prickles and protuberances on the head
  5. (usually, in the plural) prickle, barb needle-like protuberance(s) on certain objects dzeloņstieple, dzeloņu stieplebarbed wire pārbaudījis uz pirksta āķa dzeloņa asumu, makšķernieks uzmauc siļķes gabaliņu — having checked on (his) finger the sharpness of the hook's prick / tip, the fisherman put on (it) a piece of herring
Synonyms: (of "thorn") ērkšķis
dzimumloceklis {{wikipedia}} etymology From dzimums ‘sex, gender’ + loceklis ‘limb, member’.
noun: {{lv-noun}}
  1. (anatomy) penis, male member
Synonyms: pimpis, pipele (vulgar)
dzīt
etymology 1 The present stem dzen- comes from Proto-Baltic *gen-, from Proto-Indo-European *gʷʰen-, whereas the infinitive stem dzī- comes from Proto-Baltic *gin-, from *gʷʰen-, the zero grade of *gʷʰen-. The original sense was “to hit,” still visible in dzīt naglu “to drive a nail (into wood).” It later evolved into “to force,” “to drive” (somewhere). Cognates include Lithuanian giñti (present tense genù), gìnti (present tense ginù), Prussian guntwei, gunnimai (apparently first-person plural form), Proto-Slavic *gъnati 〈*gʺnati〉, present tense *žěno (Russian гнать 〈gnatʹ〉, Belarusian гнаць 〈gnacʹ〉, Ukrainian гнати 〈gnati〉, Bulgarian гоня 〈gonâ〉, Czech hnáti, Polish gnać), Old High German gund-, Old Norse gunnr, Norwegian dialectal gana, Hittite kuenzi, Sanskrit हन्ति 〈hanti〉, Avestan 𐬘𐬀𐬌𐬥𐬙𐬌 〈𐬘𐬀𐬌𐬥𐬙𐬌〉, Ancient Greek φόνος 〈phónos〉 (< *gʷʰen-), θείνω 〈theínō〉 (< *gʷʰen-), Latin dēfendō (< *gʷʰen-).{{R:lv:LEV}} pronunciation
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  1. to lead, to drive to make (animals, people, etc.) go faster, or in a certain direction dzīt zirgus ātrāk — to make the horses go faster dzīt zirgus aplokā — to drive, to lead the horses into the paddock dzīt ganos — to take (the animals) to pasture (to graze) dzīt govis ārā no labības — to drive the cows away from the grains bet lopi gan jādzen no kūts ārā — but we have to drive, move the animals out of the barn pa ceļu divas sievietes dzina sarkanu govi — two women were leading the red cow along the road daži jātnieki aizaulekšoja dzīt kopā ciemniekus — some riders galloped to drive the villagers together (= to make them gather together)
  2. (of objects) to push, to pull, so as to make (something) move in a certain direction dzīt ratiņus pa ceļu — to push, to pull a cart on the road nosēdies airos, Pičs ar vienmērīgiem un spēcīgiem vēzieniem dzina laivu uz priekšu — sitting at the oars, Pičs with steady and strong strokes drove, moved the boat forward daudzi šīs brigādes vīri dzen tīklus Daugavā jau garu garos gadu desmitus — many of the men in this team drove (= threw, cast) nets in the Daugava (= fished in the Daugava) for already a good ten years
  3. (of inanimate beings) to move, to drive, to propel to make a vehicle move motors ar lielu prieku dzen laivu ar zvejniekiem pertī jaunam lomam — the motor with great joy moved, propelled the boat with the firshermen to(ward) a new catch rudens vējš dzen lapu virpuļus — the autumn wind moved, drove the leaf in a whirl nelaba jausma dzina Osi tālāk — a bad premonition, apprehension drove Osis further
  4. (usually together with prom, projām, ārā) to send (something) away; to make (something) disappear dzīt laukā no mājām — to send away from the house dzīt prom no galda — to push away from the table ienaidnieks uz mūžu projām dzīts — the enemy for life (has been) driven away nekas, nekas, tas dzen reimatismu ārā — no, not at all, this drives the rheumatism away
  5. to make (someone) do something; to make someone do something (e.g., work) at full capacity dzīt pie darba — to make (someone) go to work dzīt zirgus auļos — to drive the horses into a gallop vagars dzen zemniekus, muižkungs vagaru un lielskungs viņus abus — the overseer drives the peasants (= makes them work), the estate manager (drives) the overseer, and the landlord both of them tas bija steidzīgs pasūtījums; meistars dzina strādniekus un mudināja — this was an urgent order; the master drove the workers (= made them work), urging them
  6. (colloquial, of vehicles) to drive them at full speed dzīt mašīnu, velosipēdu — to drive a car, a bicycle (as fast as it will go)
  7. to chase to run after, e.g., an animal, during a hunt, so as to make sure it goes in a certain direction tagad sāk dzīt zaķi pa upes krastiem — now they began to chase a hare along the river banks puisim ar suņiem jāiet apkārt uz viņu pusi un jāsāk dzīt — the young man with the dogs has to go around to his side and begin to chase (the game)
  8. to chase to follow, to try to find, especially in a hunt dzīt pēdas — to follow (lit. chase) a trail jau vairākus mēnešus drošības dienests dzina pēdas nelegālai organizācijai — already for many months the security service has been following (lit. chasing) the trail to the illegal organization
  9. to drive to force something into something else, usually with physical strength dzīt naglu sienā — to drive a nail into the wall dzīt mietu zemē — to drive, to stick a pole into the ground pirksti steigšus dzen patronu stobrā — (his) fingers hastily drove, stuck the cartridge into the barrel
  10. to drive, to clear to make (a path, a furrow) in a certain direction, usually via hard work Albīns dzina pēdējo stigu gar meža malu — Albīns cleared (lit. drove) the last firebreak along the edge of the forest izaugs dēls; un jaunas vagas dzīs — the son will grow up, and he will drive (= clear, open) new furrows
  11. to drive to cause, to be the cause of something unpleasant happening to someone dzīt postā, izmisumā — to drive (someone) to misery, to despair dzīt nāvē — to send, drive (someone) to death bet šis uzņēmums bija tas, kas Nagainim sagādāja daudz raižu un dzina aizvien dziļāk parādos — but it was this company that caused great trouble to Nagainis, and drove (him) deeper and deeper into debt
  12. (usually 3rd person, of plants) to grow new growth, shoot, sprout to produce as part of their bodies dzīt asnus, atvases — to grow sprouts, shoots līdzko augsne atkususi, sparģeļi dzen asnus — as soon as the soil thaws, the asparagus grows sprouts pēc noziedēšanas un augļu nogatavošanās agave iet bojā, bet saknenis dzen jaunas lapu rozetes — after flowering and bearing fruit, the agave dies, but its rootstock grows new leaf rosettes
  13. (colloquial) to gather, to put together (by pushing, carrying, etc.) dzīt malku mājās — to gather firewood at home dzīt mantu, naudu — to gather riches, money saimnieks dzina iepriekšējās dienas pļāvumu vālos — the farmer drove (= gathered) the result of the previous' days mowing into piles
etymology 2 From {{calque}}. has been critical of many suggested Livonian calques in Latvian, however, the semantic split of the verb dzīt "to chase away" doubling to mean "to shave" is convincing according to him. Compare Livonian abbiņi ajjõ, Estonian habet ajama.Marta Rudzīte, ''Latviešu un lībiešu valodas savstarpējā ietekme'' in Kersti Boiko's ''[http://dspace.utlib.ee/dspace/handle/10062/16959 Lībieši – rakstu krājums]'', page 294 pronunciation
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verb: {{lv-verb}}
  1. to shave dzīt bārdu, matus — to shave (one's) beard, hair
It is very common that speakers relegate dzīt to mean shaving with some type of an electrical appliance such as a hair trimmer, in turn, using skūt to refer to shaving with a razor.
etymology 3 From Proto-Baltic *dzi-, from Proto-Indo-European *gʷeyh₃- 〈*gʷeyh₃-〉, *gʷeyh₃- 〈*gʷeyh₃-〉 (< *gʷeyh₃- 〈*gʷeyh₃-〉). The original meaning was thus “to live,” from which “to become healthy.” At first there was an opposition between dzīt “to heal, become healthy” (present tense dzīstu) and dzīt “to live” (present tense dzīvu), but the latter form was later replaced by dzīvot, possibly originally its iterative form. Cognates include Lithuanian gýti, Proto-Slavic *žiti (Russian жить 〈žitʹ〉, Belarusian жыць 〈žycʹ〉, Ukrainian жити 〈žiti〉, живити 〈živiti〉, Upper Sorbian žić, Avestan , Ancient Greek βίος 〈bíos〉 (< *gʷi-). pronunciation
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  1. (of wounds, scars) to heal to become whole, to disappear with the formation of new tissue vātis dzīst — the wounds are healing ievainojums dzija lēni — the injury healed slowly visas brūces reiz dzīst — all wounds heal once (= at some point)
  2. (of body parts, organs) to heal to become healthy again Ošu Andram apdauzītais pirksts gan lāgā negribēja dzīt, bet akmeņu laušana tomēr veicās labi — Ošu Andrs' injured finger would not heal properly, nevertheless the stone breaking was going well
dzīvs etymology From Proto-Balto-Slavic *gīˀwas{{R:Kim PBS}}, from Proto-Indo-European *gʷiwós, *gʷih₃wós 〈*gʷih₃wós〉, from *gʷey-, *gʷī- (whence also dzīt; q.v.) with a suffix -wo. Cognates include Lithuanian gývas, Prussian gijwans, geiwans, xsv giwatti (< *gīvati), Proto-Slavic *živъ 〈*živʺ〉 (Church Slavic живъ 〈živʺ〉, Russian жив 〈živ〉), Proto-Germanic *kwikwaz (either with a different suffix -k(w)o- or with h₃w > kw strengthening; Gothic 𐌵𐌹𐌿𐍃 〈𐌵𐌹𐌿𐍃〉, English quick, Swedish kvick, German keck), Sanskrit जीव 〈jīva〉, Latin vīvus (< *gʷiwós), Ancient Greek βίος 〈bíos〉, Proto-Celtic *biwos (Irish beo, bia, Welsh byw).{{R:lv:LEV}} pronunciation
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adjective: {{lv-adj}}
  1. (of people, animals) living, alive that which lives dzīva būtneliving being dzīvs organismsliving organism dzīvā dabaliving nature (= the animal and vegetal kingdoms) māte viņam ir dzīva — his mother is alive pirmajā brīdī, kad uzzināju, ka Arturs dzīvs, man uzplūda tik daudz atmiņu — at the very moment when I heard that Arturs (was) alive, so many memories surged back to me
  2. (of plants, their parts) living, alive dzīvi ziediliving flowers (i.e., natural, not artificial) kamēr augs ir dzīvs, saknes un stumbrs aug arvien lielāki un palielinās lapu skaits — as long as the plant is alive, the roots and the trunk grow larger and larger and the number of leaves increases
  3. (of body parts, their components) living, alive not dead, still working dzīva šūnaliving cell dzīvi audiliving tissues dzīvs zobsliving tooth
  4. (definite forms) the living those who are alive dzīvie un mirušie — the living and the dead atrasties starp dvīvajiem — to be among the living
  5. lively, active, jolly which quickly reacts to external stimuli; expressing such capacity of reaction dzīvas acislively eyes dzīva sejas izteiksmelively facial expression siltumā un pie kārtīga ēdiena zēns kļuva dzīvāks un jautrāks — with warmth and good food the boy became livelier and more cheerful Skārbis bija maza, sīka auguma, ļoti dzīvs un runātnīgs — Skārbis was of small, petite size, very lively and talkative Pēteris kļuva runīgāks, gāja dzīvāku soli — Pēteris became more talkative (and) walked (with) livelier step(s)
  6. (of motion, traffic) bustling, intense, active, busy dzīva satiskmeintense, heavy traffic dzīva šosejafull, busy highway dzīva kustība uz ielāmintense movement on the streets tuvāk pilsētai ceļš kļuva dzīvāks; brauca tirdzinieki ar siena vezumiem un āboliem — closer to the city the road became busier; merchants rode with their carts full of hay and apples
  7. (of actions, events) lively, intense dzīvas sarunaslively conversation dzīva izrādelively show dzīva diskusija notika Arodbiedrību nama Kolonnu zālē — a lively discussion took place in the Column hall of the House of Trade Unions ap vilcienu bija dzīva kņada: atbraucēji gandrīz visi bija kareivji — around the train (there) was intense uproar: almost all arrivals were soldiers
  8. (of mental activities) lively, intense, strong, powerful dzīva iztēle, fantāzijalively imagination, fantasy dzīva intereselively, strong interest
  9. (of works of art, etc.) lively, expressive, intensive dzīva gleznaalive, expressive painting ilustrācijas kopā ar paskaidrojošo tekstu grāmatā ir ļoti dzīvas — the illustrations together with the explanatory text in the book are very alive, expressive
  10. (of imagined entities) living, lively very similar to reality; very impressive dzīvas atmiņaslively, intense, impressive memories šis bija viens no tiem briesmīgajiem sapņiem, kuri tik dzīvi un skaidri kā pati dzīve — this was one of those terrible dreams which are as alive and clear as life itself
  11. intact, untouched, safe; (of money) unspent; (of memories) well maintained nez vai jel mājas vairs būs dzīvas — who knows if the houses will still be alive (= intact, unharmed) pērnēja gada alga man vēl tāpat dzīva — my last year's salary is still as it were alive (= unspent) gadi ir aizgājuši, bet senā sajūta vēl vienmēr dzīva — years have passed, but the old feeling is still always alive
  12. (colloquial) such that there is a lot of it, without impurities, admixture ēst dzīvus taukus — to eat living (= pure) fat ēst dzīvu sāli — to eat living salt (i.e., to eat food with a lot of salt) dzīva nauda, balta naudaliving money, white money (both meaning “a lot of money”)
Synonyms: (of "active", "lively", "cheerful") dzīvespriecīgs, mundrs, možs, spirgts, žirgts
antonyms:
  • nedzīvs
  • miris
eksistēt etymology Via some other European language (cf. French exister, German existieren), ultimately a Borrowing from Latin exsistō. pronunciation {{audio}}
verb: {{lv-verb}}
  1. to exist, to be telpa un laiks eksistē objektīvi, reāli, neatkarīgi no mūsu priekšstatiem — space and time exist objectively, in reality, independently from our ideas
  2. to be alive visam taču bija nozīme tikai tad, ja viņš eksistē — but everything had meaning only as long as he existed (= was alive) būt, eksistēt, elpot, sajust un apzināties dzīvības krāšņo plūsmu sev visapkārt: tā taču visaugstākā laime katrai apzinīgai būtnei — to be, to exist, to breathe, to feel and to perceive the magnificent flow of life around oneself: this is, however, the highest happiness for every conscious creature
  3. (colloquial) to subsist, to live on eksistēt ar godīgi nopelnīto — to subsist on what was honorably, fairly earned
Synonyms: būt, pastāvēt
related terms:
  • eksistence
  • eksistenciālisms, eksistenciālists, eksistenciāliste, eksistenciālistisks
ēst etymology From Proto-Baltic *ēs-ti, from Proto-Indo-European *ed-, *ēd-, *h₁ed- 〈*h₁ed-〉. Cognates include Lithuanian ė́sti, Prussian īst (< *ēst), īstwei, xsv ezd (< *ēst), Proto-Slavic *ěsti (Church Slavic ꙗсти 〈ꙗsti〉, Russian есть 〈estʹ〉, Belarusian есці 〈escí〉, Ukrainian їсти 〈í̈sti〉, Bulgarian ям 〈âm〉, Czech jísti, Polish jeść), Gothic 𐌹𐍄𐌰𐌽 〈𐌹𐍄𐌰𐌽〉, 𐌰𐍆𐌴𐍄𐌾𐌰 〈𐌰𐍆𐌴𐍄𐌾𐌰〉, Old Norse eta, German essen, English eat, Hittite ed-, ad-, Sanskrit अत्ति 〈atti〉, अद्मि 〈admi〉, Ancient Greek ἔδω 〈édō〉, Latin edō.{{R:lv:LEV}} pronunciation
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  1. to eat to take food into one's mouth in order to chew and swallow it ēst maizi, gaļu — to eat bread, meat ēst kartupeļus, zupu — to eat potatoes, soup aicināt ēst — to invite to eat man gribas ēst — I want to eat (= I am hungry) pat saldējumu viņa ēda pavisam savādāk nekā citas meitenes — even ice cream she ate quite differently from the other girls pie galda sasēdušies, visi ēda klusu — having sat at the table, they all ate silently
  2. to eat, to have to consume a meal ēst brokastis, pusdienas — to have breakfast, lunch ēst launagu — to have a snack viņi varēja iet rotaļas... un pēcāk visi kopā ēst vakariņas — they could go play... and later on all together have dinner
  3. (colloquial, of insects) to sting, to bite kad saules karstums kļuva neciešams, dunduri un odi ēda viņu kailās muguras — when the sun heat became unbearable, the horseflies and mosquitoes ate their naked backs
  4. (of pests) to eat, to kill, to destroy dārzā spradži ēda kapostus nost — in the garden, the flea-beetles ate the cabbages away
  5. (colloquial, of chemical or mechanical processes) to eat, to destroy; to make disappear rūsa ēd dzelzi — rust eats iron skābe ēd metālu — acid eats metal saule Bišudruvu dārzā un sētā ēda un kausēja sniegu dienās, migla siltajās naktīs — in the garden and backyard of the Bišudruvu (family), the sun ate and melted the snow during the day, and the fog (did the same) in the warm nights
  6. (colloquial) to nag, to harass, to criticize constantly, to cause pain to labi, ka virtuvē nebija saimnieces; tā viņu vienmēr ēda kā par veco kannu, kā par sarūsējušo mazgājamo bļodu — good that the landlady was not in the kitchen; she always nagged/harassed (lit ate) him like an old pot, like a rusty wash basin māte gan prot sabojāt garastāvokli... ko viņa mani nav ēdusi šo nelaimīgu matu dēļ! — mother really knows how to spoil the mood... what (= how often) hasn't she nagged/harassed me about that damn hair!
Synonyms: (of "sting", "bite") dzelt, kost
related terms:
  • ēsma
filozofija {{wikipedia}} etymology Via other European languages, ultimately from Latin philosophia, from Ancient Greek φιλοσοφία 〈philosophía〉, from φίλος 〈phílos〉 and σοφία 〈sophía〉 (with the suffix -ίa 〈-ía〉, Latvian -ija).
noun: {{lv-noun}}
  1. (chiefly, in the singular) philosophy the study of ultimate, fundamental principles in nature, thought, and spirit filozofijas vēsture — history of philosophy
  2. (chiefly, in the singular) philosophy the fundamental principles of a science or topic of study matemātikas filozofijaphilosophy of mathematics valodas filozofijaphilosophy of language
  3. philosophical teaching, school of thought Aristoteļa, Hēgeļa, Marksa filozofija — Aristotelian, Hegelian, Marxist philosophy
  4. (colloquial) thought, belief system; speculation šī bija lielākā gudrība un dziļākā puiša filozofija — this was the boy's highest wisdom and deepest philosophy
filozofisks etymology From filozofija + isks. Probably not derived as such in Latvian, but borrowed and adapted from another European language.
adjective: {{lv-adj}}
  1. philosophical relating to philosophy filozofiskais materiālismsphilosophical materialism filozofiskā doma, dzejaphilosophical thought, poetry filozofiska diskusija, doktrīnaphilosophical discussion, doctrine filozofisks vispārinājumsphilosophical generalization
  2. (colloquial) think deep, speculating Roberts, filozofisku pārdomu mocīts, iziet ārā lietū un negaisā — Roberts, tormented by philosophical reflection, went outside, into the rain and storm
related terms:
  • filozofija
  • filozofs, filozofe
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